The thesis broadly falls under five headings, namely: 1. The Buddha was not “born a Hindu”. Hinduism in its present form had not emerged at the time of his birth; 2. Before the time of the Buddha the religion of India was Vedic Brāhmaṇism, and alongside the Vedic tradition there was an ascetic (Śramaṇa) stream of religious thought and practise having its origin in prehistoric times; 3. That it is to this Śramaṇic culture that Buddhism has its closest affinity; 4. That Hinduism grew out of a fusion of Vedic Brāhmaṇism with Buddhism and other Śramaṇic religious trends; 5. That although Buddhism acknowledges an affinity with the Śramaṇic cults, it is nevertheless a unique product of the Buddha’s direct insight. Dr. Joshi is not the first to have pointed this out.